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King Frederik 3rd
1609 - 1670             King 1648-70
                           Norway 1648-70
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Danish Kings, from Gorm the Old to the present Queen Margrethe 2nd

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The paintings can be seen at Rosenborg Castle

King Frederik 3rd

Queen Solie Amalie

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Christian 4th’s eldest son Christian was elected successor to the throne. He lived a debauched life and became broken down in body and soul. He died 2nd June 1647 and left no heirs.

As next eldest son of Christian 4th and queen Anna Cathrine, Frederik 3rd’s duty as a king was not decided in advance.
Frederik 3rd was a reserved, modest and thoughtful personality. He was literary and scientific interested. He had a good education and became as quite young assistant for the bishop in Bremen and became later prince bishop of Bremen and Verden.

As bachelor he had in 1637 a love affair to the middle class Margrethe Pape from Holsten, with whom he had a son. In 1683 Margrethe Pape was appointed baroness of Løwendal by Christian 5th.

He was married to Sofie Amalie at Glücksborg Castle the 18th October 1643. She was daughter of Georg of Braunschwig-Lunenburg (son of Christian 4th’s sister Elisabeth).

When the king died 28th February 1648, no succssor to the throne was yet elected. The right to rule so went on to The Council of the Kingdom, which consisted of nobilities among others the son-in-law Corfitz Ulfeldt, who was steward of the Kingdom. Frederik was the only one, who could be considered king, and he signed a very severe document, which confirmed the power to the nobilities.

King Frederik 3rd and queen Sofie Amalie were crowned in Vor Frue Kirke 23rd November 1648.

During the first years after his crowning Frederik left the governing of the country to The Council of the Kingdom and the civil cervants, but when the conflict between The Council of the Kingdom and Kirsten Munk’s sons-in-law Corfitz Ulfeldt and Hannibal Sehested arose, he was on the Council’s side. He was backed by Sofie Amalie, who did not like Ulfeldt’s wife Leonora Christine.

They flet to Sweden accused of treason. Later Ulfeldt took part in war against his native country. He was later sentenced to death but died before from illness. Leonora Christine was prisoned in Blåtårn and remained there for 22 years. Here she wrote her memoirs “Jammers Minde” (Memory of Misery), which was published in 1869. She died in Maribo Monastery and was buried in Maribo Cathedral.

Frederik 3rd wanted war against Sweden among other things to win back Bremen and Venden, and when news came 1657 that it went bad for Karl Gustav in Poland, Denmark declared war.
But before Denmark had begun its armament, Karl Gustav was at the boarder of Holsten with 8.000 men core troops. The Swedes flooded the peninsula, and Wrangel captured by storm the newly erected fortress Frederiksodde (Fredericia).
Even so Karl Gustav’s situation was dangerous, because an Polish army approached and was already in Pommern.

Then in January 1658 it became so severe frost, that The Straits froze. From South Jutland Karl Gustav crossed to Funen and drow the Danish troops away. One of his generals Erik Dahlberg examined the ice at The Great Belt and found it safe.
Under his command the army went over Langeland, Lolland and Falster to Zealand and approached Copenhagen, which was unable to defend itself, as the lakes and the moats were covered with ice.
Denmark then had to obtain peace at any price.
At the peace in Tåstrup and Roskilde Denmark lost Skåne, Halland, Blekinge and Bornholm, two areas in Norway, Bohus and Trondhjems Len.
A little later the duke of Gottorp was released from Denmark’s high-supervision
Again the same year the Swedish army invaded Zealand and proceeded to Copenhagen. When the people urged him to leave the town to remove to a safe place, he said, “I will die in my nest”, which gave him enormous common popularity. They succeeded in saving the city.
The power of the Council diminished, and a war council was founded, which handled military and political decisions.

Frederik 3rd had the inherit monarchy implemented and achived the absolute power by implementing the absolute manarchy in Denmark.

In the following years Frederik’s cabinet secretary Griffenfeldt had the King-law drafted. It established the kings absolute power, which only limitation was, that he was not to change it, and that the king should belong to the Lutheran Church.

Frederik 3rd died at Copenhagen Castle 60 years old, and became buried at Roskilde Cathedral. Sofie Amalie died 20th February 1685, and was buried besides her husband.

Frederik 3rd and Sofie Amalie hat the children:

Christian 5th 1646-99, later king
Anna Sofie 1647-1717. In 1666 married to prince Johan Georg 3rd of Sachsen
Frederikke Amalie 1649-1704, Married in 1667 to duke Christian Albrecht of Gottorp
Vilhelmine Ernestine 1650-1706. Married in 1671 to prince Karl of Pfalz in Heidelberg
Frederik 1651-52
Jørgen 1653-1708. In 1673 choosen for the Polish thrown, but the prince would not convert religion, so it was cancelled. Married in 1683 to princess Anne of England, daughter of James 2nd and Anne Hyde
Ulrikke Eleonora 1656-93. Married in 1680 to king Karl 11th of Sweden
Dorothea Juliane 1657-58. Died from smallpox.

Frederik 3rd and his mistress Margrethe Pape had the child:

Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve 1639-1704. Married in 1659 to Sophie Urne, divorced in 1660. They became ancestors to the counts Danneskjold-Løvendal.
Remarried in 1660 to Marie Grubbe, divorced 1670.
Remarried in 1677 to Antonia Augusta of Altenburg. They became ancestors to the counts Danneskjold-Laurvig. Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve built Charlottenborg in Copenhagen in 1672.

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