Torstensson War 1643-45.
the German war the Swedish Oxenstjerna also found the time to defeat
Denmark. Christian 4th had with jealousy seen the Swedish
advance in Germany, and he had in any way made obstacles.
At the same time he had by raising The Sound taxes come on bad terms
with Holland, who therefore was willing to support any attack on
Oxenstjerna ordered 1643 Torstensson, who at that time stayed all the
way down in Mahren, in great haste and without war declaration to
attack Denmark. Soon Torstensson advanced across the border. The duke
of Gottorp cooperated, and all of the Jutlandic peninsular came under
At the same time another Swedish army conquered Skåne, and it was the
intention, that the two armies should meet its other on the islands.
From this danger Denmark was saved only by its old king’s
tirelessness and heroism.
Denmarks land-defence had proved to be so weak, that it was crushed at
first attack, but the navy was in good condition.
Christian 4th first defeated at Listerdyb by Sild the fleet,
which Louis de Geer had rented in Holland. Then he at Kolberg Heide
(by Femern) met the Swedish main fleet, and though he was wounded, he
was leading the battle to the end and enclosed the Swedes in Kieler
Later they succeeded in getting away through the narrow waters and to
unite with de Geer’s fleet.
The united fleets met south of Lolland an inferior Danish escalate,
led by Pros Mund and destroyed it totally.
Now the Swedes had superior force as well at land as at sea, and
Christian 4th had to sign a peace treaty in Bromsebro in
1645, by which Sweden got Øsel and Gulland, the Norwegian regions
Herjedalen and Jæmteland, Halland for 30 years, totally dutyfree in
The Sound, and the mutual free trade agreement, which since the union
had taken place between the two countries, was now cancelled.