the death of Christoffer the opponents to the union in Sweden got the upper
hand, and choose Karl Knutsson as king. The Danish Council thought of electing
duke Adolf, for this way voluntarily again to tie Slesvig to the kingdom. But
that the crown refused and referred the Council to his sisterson, count
Christian of Oldenburg, whose mother was a descendent from Erik Klipping.
After Christian had promised the Council, that he would not start a war or
demand new taxes without the consent of the Councel, he became king of Denmark
and married Christoffer’s widow, Dorothea of Brandenburg.
Norway hesitated between Karl Knutsson and Christian 1st, until at
a meeting in Halmstad between the Danish and the Swedish Councils, it was
determined, that Karl should give up Norway.
Then Christian was crowned in Trondhjem’s Cathedral and made in Bergen the
agreement with the Norwegan Council, that Norway and Denmark forever should
stay together under one king (1450).
Thus the union between the two countries was tied firmer, while Sweden stepped
out of the union. However, the Danish kings did not give up the Swedish crown,
and the first three Oldenborgske kings really achieved to become masters in
this country, but each time only for a short time.
In Sweden the union-party, which consisted of many noble families, was still
strong and wanted to remove Karl Knutsson.
Archbishop Jons Bengtsson Oxenstjerna broke with him in 1457, when he in
Upsala Cathedral laid down his bishop-stick on the altar, dressed himself in
armour and swor king Karl Knutsson enmity.
King Karl was driven away.
Christian 1st was called in and acclaimed king and had the power in
Sweden from 1457 - 1464.
Then the country’s peasants were tired of his governing and reluctant to his
tax-impose. Karl Knutsson came back and kept under continual fighting the
crown until his death in 1470.
On his deathbed he nominated Sten Sture the Elder as his successor.
Jørgen and the draggon (in
From Sten Sture the Elder’s
When Christian 1st
carried out a new attack, Sten Sture defeated him at Brunkebjerg in 1471.
For 25 years after that Sweden was in peace for Danish attacks.
As duke Adolf died childless, the Holstenske nobelmen would rather choose a
German count , while the Slesvigske would want Christian 1st as
duke. But both parts wanted to keep together their lands, as many had estates
in both Holsten and Slesvig.
Christian 1st threatened them, if they did not choose him, he would
confiscate South Jutland as ownerless county, and so he forced through , that
the Councils of the two lands, which correspond to the Danish Council, in Ribe
1460 elected him duke of Slesvig and count of Holsten.
As to external power the Danish Crown gained considerable by the agreement
1460, after that its power base reached to Lübeck’s and Hamburg’s gates.
“Then the Holstener became Danish”, the Lybeske Krønike tells. Christian
1st did much to secure this conquest. He bought his suitors
consents for huge amounts and convinced the emperor to raise Holsten to
duke-status, which should also include Ditmarsken.
Christian 1st was noble, brave and laborious. As long as his
mothers brother Adolf lived and guided him, his governing was succesfull, but
after Adolf’s death, he was often unlucky. He was not cool-headed and
It harmed him, that he always was short of money, especially after the
election in Ribe.
Therefore he had to indulge Hansestæderne, who even forced him to cancel
trading with the Nederlandske towns.
When the Germans in Bergen killed the royal chief, the bishop and many others
and burned down a monastery, he let it stay unpunished.
His daughter got married to the Scottish king, James 3rd, and as he
could not pay the dowry, he pawned Orkneyøerne and Shetlandsøerne as
collateral, and they were never later cashed.
Huge amounts of money he spend for journeys abroad, of which one went to Rome
in 1474, where the Pope acknowledged him considerable influence on appointment
of the church’s officials and gave him permission to establish an university.
This was opened in Copenhagen in 1479. Under his visit to the Pope
Christian’s figure aroused admiration, but not his knowledge of latin, and
the Pope remarked “handsome animal, only a pity it cannot speak”.
Christian 1st became ancestor to the Oldenborgske royal family.
Christian is buried in Roskilde Cathedral.
Christian 1st was son of Didrik of Oldenburg and Hedvig of Holsten.
In 1449 he married Dorothea of Brandenburg, widow after Christoffer of Bayern.
They har the children:
1450, died as a child
died as a child
1455-1513, later king
1456-87, married in 1469 to king Jakob 3rd of Scotland
1st, 1471-1533, later king.