back of the small stone in Jelling
On the back is says /Denmark/
small runic-stone in Jelling shows the oldest words known from a Danish king.
It is the first time in Denmark that the name of the country is used, but in
Europe it has been known for at least 75 years. The geography-book of king
Alfred the Great is the first place to mention the name Denmark. Alfred, who
was king of Wessex 871-899, was a very culturally interested
king, and he produced a geographical description of northern Europe mentioning
"dene mearc" as the Danish area. The annals of Reginos written
around the year 900 in the monastery of Prum near Cologne mentions "Denimarca"
in the year 884, so the name was well known when Gorm around the year 950 put
it on the monument for his queen Thyra.
Gorm died in the winter of 958-59. When Thyra Danebod died we do not know, but
she died before Gorm.
On the small Jelling stone she is mentioned as "tanmarkar but The Pride
of Denmark". We do not know where Thyra is buried, a guess could be that
the gigantic stone ship is a monument for The Queen Thyra, and that she is
buried at that place. The remains of Gorm were found in the grave chamber
beneath Jelling Church. Gorm erected his stone "after Thyra". Then
have died before him, but probably not long before him, if they have been of
the same age. He mentions himself as king on the small runic stone, so it must
have been erected after Gorm became king about 934 and before 958, when Gorm
died himself. Gorm has probably first been buried in the North Mound in
Jelling, and after his son Harald Blåtand (Harald Bluetooth) had been
christened about 969, Harald let build a wooden church in Jelling, and moved
Gorms body to the church. When Gorm was found beneath the church in 1978 he
was removed to
Nationalmuseet for further examinations. The examinations confirmed that Gorm
was about 50 years old when he died. He had been 172 cm high, which was a
considerable height at that time. He suffered from rheumatism in the lower
part of the vertebral column.
In the year 2000 Gorm was reburied in Jelling Church.
Gorm was placed in an metal box and placed in a concrete chamber in front of
the chorus in the church.
The place where King Gorm first was buried.
chamber in Thyras mound
Where Gorm was high seated.
moved his father, Gorm from Thyras mound , into the grave
chamber beneath the new build christen church.
restoration of Jelling Church 1978-79
for the king is to day marked
with a cart
high seated and later buried here
words "Gorm King" are almost like a headline but in larger writing
than the rest of the inscriptions. "Kumler" is in the plural form
and means remembrance so there must have been more than one runic-stone.
Most likely Thyra was buried with the runic-stone as a sort of tombstone, but
unfortunately there is only little or no hope of finding her grave. If it was
placed in the central area it is perhaps in the present graveyard, but many
graves have - during the years - erased all traces of queen Thyra.
There has been a lot of speculation as to the original place of the small
runic-stone. Maybe on one of the mounds or maybe at its present place. We know
that in 1627 the stone was next to the church entrance - used as a seat, and
that no later than 1639 it was returned to the present position.
It tells in Snorri Sturlasons "Norske Kongers Krønike" that
King Gorm had two sons together with Tyri Danebod whose names was Knud and
Harald. Knud was handy and the youngest of the two and looked like his mother
so he was called Knud dane ast (Knud the Danes delight and love).
was king in England, and in his time Knud and Harald, the sons of Gorm of
Denmark, came with a large fleet to England and conquered Northumbria, saying
that it was their heir, and which their parents had owned. King Adelbrecht
forth against them with a huge army and meet them north of Klyfland. There
were many dead and wounded on both sides.
After some time Gorms sons went up to Skardeborg (Scarborough), which is
saturated east of York and further on to York. When Knud and other Danes are
swimming, the enemy uses bow and arrow and Knud is killed. When King Athelstan
comes with a large army, the Danes sail back home. Then follows the story of
how Thyra paints the houses black so that Gorm says that his son Knud is dead.
As per "Ulsterannalerne" a son of Ailche plundered in the years
921-927 at the south, west and north coast of Ireland. A note says that
Ailche was also known under the name of Tamar or Gomo Old. If this is correct,
Knud Dana ast has been Viking in Ireland.
Harald son of Gorm was killed in 986-987. He is old, but dies not from old
age, so he is probably born about 915.
As per "The Angelsaxiske Krønike" the only attack on England
between the year 924 and 942 is the two Olav´s fight against Athelstan
in 937, which turns out to be the battle at Brunnanburh, where 5 young kings
and 7 earls together with uncountable others are killed. Knud and Harald sons
of Gorm are probably in England to help their relative Olaf Sigtryggsøn. It
must have been in this campain Knud Dana-ast were killed, either during the
battle or while swimming. Knud has a son, so he must have been about 10 years
older than Harald.
sons are just in England at the time when Hedeby-empire is weakening. As
the old Gorm is not able to lead the army, his commander Harde-Gunni must do
Knud Dana-ast has a son, his name is Harald, later called Gold-Harald. When
Gold-Harald had grown up, he claimed from his uncle Harald Blåtand half of
the kingdom as inhertance from his father. As per Tryggvasons saga, Harald Blåtand
(Harald Bluetooth) answers him: No man had claimed from his father Gorm that
he should be half king of Denmark, nor not from his fathers father Hardeknud
or Sigurd Ormøye or Regner Lodbrok.
Gold-Harald was shortly after killed by deceit at the entrance to Limfjorden
976. Had Gold-Harald not been killed, he had surely inherited the kingdom
after Harald Blåtand, because Harald Blåtand had no legitimate sons, only
Slegfredsøn with a country daughter from the island of Fuen, Svend(Tveskæg).
The Myth about
The historian Saxo and Svend Aggesen Write in the 1200-years about the clever,
pretty and virtuous queen. She is said to be the one, who build
Dannevirke, but that the historians have denied, as it has been proven that
Dannevirke has been build a long time before. In stead it could have been an
enlargement of the rampart.
The historians tell that the German emperor Otto The I courted Thyra, but she
gave him no answer for a year, and in the meantime she had Dannevirke erected,
so that emperor Otto was not able to conquer the country.
It was also told that Thyra was the christen, who has been a good example for
her son Harald. It could easily be the explanation why he was kindly disposed
toward the christen church and later was christened.
Thyra Danebod, the pride of Denmark, tanmarkar but, the mother to Denmark.
Names which symbolize that she was very much liked, and that she did her best